The ever-growing stack of Canadian popular history books is a tribute to the success of his own stack. Berton wrote over 50 books, and 27 of them make reference to Dawson City or the Canadian North in some fashion. His last book, a collection of profiles of famous people who lived and worked in the North, included two who made their names here, Klondike Joe Boyle and that Service fellow who lived across the street from Berton's home.
Since , his own home has played host to 51 writers-in-residence. It started slowly as a spring- and summer-only affair, but is now a year-round residence, with four writers each taking three months. Numerous books have been produced here. For all his success in every medium he tackled, books were Berton's first and greatest love, and it was his idea, encouraged by his friends and contacts here, to buy back the family home and make it into a writers' retreat.
It has gone through several phases since the early s, when he first made the purchase, but it is now managed by the Writers Trust of Canada with some assistance from the Dawson Community Library Board and the Klondike Visitors Association. After 32 years teaching in rural Yukon schools, Dan Davidson retired from that profession but continues writing about life in Dawson City. His consumer columns, which embraced consumption but warned against hucksters and con men, intuitively addressed social tensions — tensions of an increasing urban nation embracing the culture of consumption but wary of the plethora of untested products.
It became the leading voice in Canada urging a compassionate, equitable, and just society. The column took the form of a poem. Its final stanza ended much as the first had begun, in the white heat of anger:. In Goderich town The trees turn red The limbs go bare As their leaves are bled And the days tick by As the sky turns lead For the small, scared boy On the small, stark bed A fourteen-year-old Who is not quite dead.
Pierre Berton, Used, First Edition
One of the many readers of the column that day was Isabel LeBourdais, Toronto journalist and mother of a fourteen-year-old son. The dust jacket of Adventures of a Columnist displayed visually the reality of Berton as incipient brand. That name occupied the bottom three-quarters of the cover and was in such large type that B E R spanned the full width of the cover, forcing T O N below it.
They show what true journalism should be — probing, factual, tightly written, sometimes jolting and always interesting. In doing so, they became instrumental in transforming Berton from a familiar surname into an enduring brand. To these attributes had now been added certain moral qualities. The public also knew Berton as a leading crusading consumer and social justice advocate, one who reflected the kind of just and equitable society Canadians desired, but did not yet have.
Canada as Canadians wanted it to be. All this added lustre and resonance to the brand.
Both volumes were in themselves iconic, and both were written at the request of important social groups. In both cases, Berton captured the zeitgeist, as would most of his later books.
It pointed out their lack of connection to the baby boom generation and noted the Generation Gap that now existed. Remembered years later as an attack on mainstream religious observance, it is better viewed as one of the few books written in the sixties in Canada on the question of generational alienation.
Here was yet another refraction of the Berton image, one with which another generation could identify: Pierre Berton, champion of the culture of youth.
Two years later, in , the federal NDP asked Berton to do for the cause of poverty and class what The Smug Minority had done for the cause of religious values. Published in January , the book hit stores in the months before the federal election. In doing so, The Smug Minority further cemented his image as compassionate Canadian, thereby playing into the sustaining identity myth of Canadians as an empathetic and caring people, but with institutions that failed too often to address those values.
Little wonder, then, that the Sixties Generation would soon buy his books in droves and continue to do so for decades. The Comfortable Pew sold , copies and The Smug Minority in the region of ,, in part because the NDP used it extensively during the election campaign. My view is that by the elements requisite to formation of the brand were already fully fleshed out and on display, ready to be enriched and entrenched.
Recall this: All successful cultural brands make an emotional connection with their core customers, but an iconic brand does so at the level of social myth. A brand becomes iconic when the myth-like narratives associated with it come to address fault-lines in the cultural fabric of a nation, bolstering national identity myths in the process. Berton did precisely this with The Comfortable Pew and The Smug Minority , for these polemical works told Canadians that the churches, the business class, and the politicians were out of touch with a Canadian ethos that was compassionate, equitable, nurturing, and caring, and that ordinary Canadians could rectify the problem.
This is what many Canadians wanted to believe about themselves, and Berton helped validate the desire. In this process, his brand became more than simply a well-known entity. It had taken an important step toward becoming iconic. Publication of The National Dream and The Last Spike in and , respectively, witnessed the consolidation rather than the creation of the Berton cultural brand.
As with his column for the Star , on his interview show one could never predict his subject. One night it might be an interview with June Callwood, the next with cartoonist Al Capp. Sometimes he interviewed interviewers, such as Mike Wallace and David Frost. Satirist Lenny Bruce appeared not long before he died of a drug overdose. The show continued until Berton called it quits in to concentrate on books and a return to history.
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The two are identical. He could not escape the influence of the contemporary scene. But at least this view sprang from hope. English-Canadian nationalists found it difficult to express themselves in ways that were unambiguously positive. Polyurethane and ink on wood. Collection of Museum London, Art Fund, The years when Berton researched and wrote The National Dream and The Last Spike were paradoxical, for the rise of nationalism in English-speaking Canada occurred in an atmosphere of national dread.
From the mids to , the year when The National Dream was published, a spate of books and anthologies with alarmist titles and dire themes appeared, such as Lament for a Nation; the Defeat of Canadian Nationalism , The New Romans; Candid Canadian Opinions of the U. Two years later, Margaret Atwood would give her study of Canadian literary identity a stark one-word title: Survival. Lament, struggle, surrender, survival.
In the months when Berton assembled the Canadian nation in his mind and put the story of one of its greatest ventures to paper, he was aware of the culture of fear in the Canada of his own day, and set out to do something about the problems that fuelled it. The initiative was to be backed financially by former Liberal cabinet minister and economic nationalist Walter Gordon, closely connected to the left-leaning Toronto Star.
The next year, Berton became an active and vocal founding member of the Committee for an Independent Canada. But now such nostrums had been given body and life. The National Dream called for national resolve in uncertain times, and the basic message of The Last Spike was that such resolve could result in great national accomplishment. And if this proved so in the s and s, years of great depression, it could happen again a century later. The National Dream resonated with Canadians far beyond its explication of their history, significant as that was. In a time of confusion, uncertainty, and fear for the future, Berton gave them hope.
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Canadians had tackled impossible tasks before, and had prevailed. In the nineteenth century they had repelled American influence, and built a railway with little American or British financial support. They had done so when the political system was in as much turmoil, and was even more corrupt than it seemed to have become a century later.
All three — but it built a nation. All that was needed was national will. Pierre Berton served up The Last Spike as he did the cocktail named after it — to reduce inhibition and galvanize resolve. The story begun in The National Dream now came to its resolution, and the story it told of great national accomplishment over adversity gave English-Canadians not simply a sense of the past, but a vicarious sense of personal satisfaction. This was the final stage of the imprinting of his brand. Everything more would be a matter of expansion and consolidation. To destroy the brand, now mature, would require Canadians to repudiate not just Berton, but themselves.
Most reviewers rewarded The Invasion of Canada , the story of the origins and first stages of the War of , with plaudits.
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Critics praised the liveliness of his prose, the immediacy of his story, and the value of his effort to make Canadians better acquainted with their own past. For readers in a nation others thought to be dull, and whose citizens tended to believe the canard, Berton offered up a history stitched together with larger-than-life personalities — Sir Isaac Brock, the brave English martyr of Queenston Heights; Tecumseh, Chief of the Shawnee, proud and loyal to the British cause; William Henry Harrison, the ambitious and ruthless Governor of Indiana Territory, later an American president — figures from a war of which Canadians were generally ignorant.
From this war, however ridiculous, had emerged a genuine sense of shared values that allowed British North Americans still loyal to the Crown to differentiate themselves from the American polity to the south. With it came the individuated frame of mind necessary for independent nationhood. Thousands of Canadians bought The Invasion of Canada and Flames Across the Border , its successor, and took away from the two books precisely this message.
The books provided a means of fortifying their national commitment at least vicariously at a time of renewed assault from without and within during the years of Reagan and Thatcher. Those who had embraced the nationalism of the seventies found in this polemical little book a handy primer to help confirm and explain to themselves why they thought as they did and how their values fed into a sense of collective identity.
The Promised Land; Settling the West, addressed growing regional discontent and distrust between provinces and federal governments. He has fallen upon a good story and dressed it up as only an old Star man could. He knew when it was time to celebrate the national dream. This book makes its appearance as a new version of western regionalism is passing from outraged infancy to the age at which it will want to read about itself.
But for Canadians in the s, with memories fresh of the dozen-year American adventure in Vietnam, the book also reflected the anti-war views of the decade.
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- Pierre Berton.
The war had not been worth the sacrifice, but Canada had indeed come of age.
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