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Realm of the Sea Emperor Structure Deck. Ciblez 2 monstres EAU avec max. Invader of Darkness set. A second flap should be done only if the reason for initial flap failure has been defined and can be corrected. Flap selection takes into consideration the needs of the recipient area size, tissue type, and length of the vascular pedicle required. Microsurgical patients are assessed regularly post-operatively for flap vascular insufficiency. Flap thrombosis prophylaxis can be addressed post-operatively with aspirin only.

Allen Cheng, Flap failure is a specter that hovers in the background after every microvascular reconstructive surgery. Most of the time, flaps that are tenuous can be identified intraoperatively. Wei and colleagues observed that the majority of flaps in their center that failed had issues with perfusion soon after inset. During the early monitoring period, if signs of flap compromise are detected, the first step is determining the cause. Arterial insufficiency manifests as a pale flap that has slow capillary refill, slow bleeding on scratch testing, and difficult-to-find arterial Doppler signal.

Venous insufficiency manifests as an engorged flap that appears cyanotic. On scratch testing, a gush of dark blood is seen. Mixed arterial and venous insufficiency can manifest as combination of these examination findings. For example, a pale flap that slowly bleeds dark blood can be seen with a flap that has arterial insufficiency and venous insufficiency.


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Finally, it is possible to have good arterial inflow and venous outflow while having poor perfusion of the microcirculation. This is manifested by poor perfusion to parts of the soft tissue flap despite normal Doppler signal and patency of the arterial and venous pedicle when explored in the operating room. A detailed discussion of flap salvage is a topic that goes beyond the scope of this chapter.

However, in our practice, insufficiency of any type requires urgent exploration. The neck is opened and any hematoma is washed out.

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The arterial and venous pedicles are examined. The venous anastomosis is divided first, to assess outflow. If no venous bleeding returns, the arterial anastomosis is also divided. Both the artery and vein are inspected. Any thrombus is gently removed if possible. The smallest size Fogarty catheter can be used in the artery to gently remove any thrombus too far distal to easily remove using forceps. The venous pedicle is gently cleaned. Thrombus located proximally in the vein is carefully milked out. It is important to remove as much as thrombus as possible prior to the next step, which is to flush the system with heparin:saline we use 10, units in mL of saline.

We flush the flap through until the venous outflow runs clear. We then flush the flap using alteplase, 2 mg diluted in 2 mL of injectable saline, administered intra-arterially with the veins left open. If they remain suitable, they are prepared and the anastomosis is performed. If they are not suitable, either they are trimmed back to flowing vessels, or new recipient vessels are selected, if available.

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After the anastomosis is complete, the geometry of the pedicle is meticulously examined. Any kinking or turn more acute than 90 degrees must be corrected. This may require further separation of the arterial and venous pedicle to allow greater degrees of freedom. We often will carefully tack the pedicle down with sutures to allow it to lie with a gentle curvature. This should be done with care because suturing the pedicle can also cause areas of kinking and constriction.

The head is then positioned in different extremes while watching the pedicle. This is done to make sure no kinking occurs in other head positions.

Despite valiant attempts at salvage, flaps will fail. When faced with a failed flap, the natural inclination is to attempt to address the defect with a compromised solution, such as leaving the defect or using a less optimal but simpler reconstruction, such as a regional flap.

However, the first-line therapy for a failed flap is to perform a second free flap. Before this is done, a hypercoagulable workup should be performed. More often than not, this workup is negative. In this case, we use multiagent thromboprophylaxis aspirin with anti-platelets and therapeutic anticoagulation heparin infusion for 3 days, then weight-based LMWH for 5 days. Although there are other published protocols, none are evidence based. Jeremy L. Wayne A. Morrison, in Flaps and Reconstructive Surgery , Our flaps are monitored clinically by experienced nursing staff on a half-hourly basis for the first 24 hours, hourly for the next 24 hours and then 4 hourly.

The commonly observed parameters include flap color, tissue turgor, and capillary return. This is aided by a self-adhesive temperature tab that is applied to the flap with a control on the adjacent normal skin.


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Buried flaps are monitored by Doppler but venous obstruction can be present while the arterial pulse is still present. Exposed skin island windows of flap can be temporarily used as a monitor of buried skin flaps but this is not possible for muscle flaps. Jejunal flaps can be designed with separate vascularized island segments sited externally through the neck skin. Open muscle flaps can be difficult to monitor, especially if skin grafts have been applied. In these cases, the nerve to the muscle can be retained and pinching this with forceps will cause the muscle to contract provided it remains vascularized P.

Callan, personal communication. Failure of postoperative care summary. It is important to avoid circumferential bandaging of limbs or tracheostomy tapes around the neck for head and neck flaps and to have full exposure of the whole flap so as to detect hematoma or marginal discoloration.

The flap may be loosely covered between times with warm towels. We have no experience with sophisticated expensive monitoring such as laser or implantable Dopplers but believe that clinical observation is generally a reliable and sensitive method of detecting postoperative flap problems. Early identification and acceptance of flap problems will permit a very high flap salvage rate. The great majority of vascular complications in free flap surgery manifest themselves in the first 12—24 hours and microvascular failure after this period is rare.

Thromboses most likely begin as an intraoperative event but are not detected until later.


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Often, when circulation is suspiciously doubtful at the conclusion of the case, hope and denial intervene. If you think a flap might be dead, it almost certainly is dead and has been for a long time. Flap salvage therefore has no room for procrastination or belief in miracles. The pale flap postoperatively must be interpreted as arterial thrombosis until proven otherwise. The heart sinks. Arterial insufficiency could be due to hypotension, vasospasm, external compression or thrombosis. A conclusion other than thrombosis is probably rationalizing. The temperature of the free flap can be measured with a surface monitor and, if normal, there is unlikely to be an arterial problem.

Arterial blood supply can also be assessed at the bedside by pricking the flap with a needle or rubbing a raw wound edge with gauze.

These maneuvers should elicit bright red bleeding. Doppler monitoring over the course of the pedicle may detect a pulse. Other causes of a pale flap postoperatively include generalized hypotension, anemia, and nausea as part of a vasovagal response. The skin of some free flaps e. A useful technique to detect subtle capillary return in pale flaps is to press on the flap with the handle end of artery forceps held flat against the skin. Visualizing the capillary refill is easier in shaded light.

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There are situations when the surgeon cannot be convinced the circulation is adequate and, in these instances, the best approach is to return the patient to theater. The congested flap postoperatively implies venous obstruction until proven otherwise. Causes include venous thrombosis, a twisted or kinked pedicle or external compression from adjacent tissues or hematoma. Excessive bleeding from the flap edge and, especially, early hematoma should suggest that venous drainage is compromised. Blood is desperately seeking alternative avenues by which to escape.

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