Assebley of Dog


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UniPaws Paw Deco 4 Panel Dog Gate White Assembly-Free, 20"" W X 24" H | Petco

The invention also provides for a novel hydraulic system for use in hatch covers of the type having a number of folding panels. It is contemplated that the hydraulic system, and the improved locking dog assembly, of this invention may be used with hatch covers of two, four, six or any well known number of panels for multi-panel hatch cover assemblies. The hydraulic system of the present invention includes a novel control means for sequencing the operation of all locking dogs of a hatch cover relative to the opening or closing of the hatch cover.

The control means is included within the hydraulic circuiting of the hydraulic system which actuates 1 the locking dog assemblies and 2 well known actuators for folding and unfolding a plurality of panels: associated with a hatch cover. The hydraulic control system functions to automatically sequence the unlocking and folding of a hatch cover, as well as the closing and locking of a hatch cover. The control system is constructed to include an essentially open circuit between all locking dog assemblies and actuators associated with the folding and unfolding of panels, and sequencing is controlled by a buildup of fluid pressure within the open circuit and without a requirement for separately actuated valves or other devices.

These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent in the more detailed discussion which follows, and in that discussion reference will be made to the accompanying drawings which are described briefly below. FIGURE 5 is a top plan view of a four panel hatch cover, illustrating schematically a hydraulic system for controlling the sequencing of locking dog operation and folding and unfolding of the hatch cover panels.

Typical hatch covers of the type contemplated by the present invention are made up of a multiple number of individual panels which are hinged or articulated to one another in such a way that the plurality of panels of a given hatch cover can be folded and unfolded to open and close hatchways.

Such constructions are Well known in the art, and do not separately form a part of the present invention. However, the invention is directed to an improved structure and operation for locking dog assemblies which may be associated with well known hatch covers. When a hatch cover is moved to a fully closed position, whether it is of a single panel sliding type or a multiple panel folding type, it is desirable to firmly latch the cover tightly against a cowling or deck surface which is immediately adjacent to the hatchway which is being covered.

Hatch covers may protrude above a deck or may be mounted flush therewith in accordance with the requirements of the particular vessel in which they are installed, but in any case, it is desirable to firmly latch and seal all such hatch covers once they are in fully closed positions. Referring to FIGURES 1 through 4, an improved locking dog assembly in accordance with the present invention is illustrated in its mounted position relative to a hatch cover panel and the periphery of a hatchway over which the panel is closed.

It is to be understood, that a plurality of such hatch dog assemblies may be provided about the entire perimeter, or along the longitudinal edges, of whatever hatch cover is being used. The improved locking dog assembly is preferably mounted within a hatch cover panel 12 so that there is no necessity in providing costly installation of the locking dogs in deck portions of a vessel.

The locking dog assembly 10 is not only carried within the panel 12, but all means for operating and actuatin the locking dog assembly are likewise carried within the panel. This feature substantially reduces costs in installation, operation, and maintenance of latching devices normally associated with hatch covers. The locking dog assembly 10 includes a lever arm means 14 having a first end 16 pivotally mounted to a bracket or other mounting plates 18 carried within the panel The lever arm means 14 also has a second end 20 which depends downwardly from a closed hatch cover panel so as to engage a hooking block means 22 carried adjacent to the hatchway which is being covered.

The pivotal mounting of the lever arm means 14 is provided by suspending the lever arm means from a pin 24, and suitable bushings or bearings may be utilized to fix the position of the pin 24 relative to the mounting bracket Also, bushings may be provided between the pin 24 and the boring within the lever arm means through which the pin passes so as to provide relatively free movement of the lever arm means relative to the pin.

The lever arm means 14 is illustrated as being made up of an upper element 26 to which a pair of lower elements 28 are rigidly affixed, such as by welding. This arrangement provides for a very strong structure which includes a space within the intermediate portion of the lever arm 14, and the space is occupied by an actuating means for the lever arm which will be described in greater detail below. The second, or lower, end 20 of the lever arm means 14 is provided with a nose portion 30 which functions to engage a downwardly directed bearing surface of the hooking block means The nose portion 30 of the lever arm extends outwardly towards the cowling of the hatchway so as to provide a firm engagement of the locking dog assembly along the bearing surfaces 34 when the locking dog is moved to a latch position.

As shown in greater detail in FIG- URE 4, the nose portion 30 may be vertically adjustable relative to the remainder of the lever arm means Vertical adjustment of the nose portion 30 is provided by removably attaching the nose portion to a fixed element 36 which is welded across the space formed between the lower elements 28 of the lever arm means.

In the illustrated embodiment, the nose portion 30 is carried by a threaded bolt 38, and washers, or other spacing elements 40 may be interposed between the element 36 and the nose portion 30 for setting the vertical position of the nose portion 30 relative to the remainder of the lever arm means. In this manner, the nose portion may be vertically adjusted after a hatch cover is installed in a vessel so as to precisely position the upwardly directed engaging surface of the nose portion relative to a downwardly directed engaging surface of a hooking block means carried adjacent to the hatchway.

Turning now to the actuating mechanism for the locking dog assembly, FIGURES 1 and 2 illustrate a preferred arrangement for moving the lever arm means 14 relative to the panel in which it is carried and relative to the hooking block means 22 with which it latches. The actuating mechanism is positioned within the hatch panel 12 so as to contact an intermediate portion of the lever arm means The latching mechanism includes hydraulic means 42 for pushing or moving the lever arm inwardly away from the perimeter of a hatchway so as to disengage the lever arm from contact with the hooking block means Reverse swinging movement of the lever arm means is provided by spring means 44 which function to move the lever arm to a latched position when operating pressure within the hydraulic means 42 is relieved.

Thus, there is provided a system which requires hydraulic actuation only when the locking dog is to be released from a locking engagement, and latching of the dog is accomplished automatically by a reliable spring means which effects locking movement of the locking dog as soon as the hydraulic means is deactivated.

The advantages in this arrangement reside in the simplicity of construction and in the requirement for a single acting hydraulic means 42 for the assembly. This arrangement eliminates requirements for costly and complex hydraulic systems which moved prior locking dog elements in both directions of movement and which required complex, and often unreliable, valving and switching devices to accomplish both latching and unlatching movements. The hydraulic means 42 which is illustrated is of any well known construction and comprises a cylinder for casing 46 in which is mounted a piston means for reciprocal movement back and forth along the longitudinal axis of the cylinder.

The piston means is connected to an outer end 48 of the actuating mechanism so that the outer end is moved back and forth with the movements of the piston. Outer end 48 of the hydraulic means includes a mounting means 50 which connects the hydraulic means to the lever arm 14 by way of a pin 52 carried by the lever arm means.

The pin 52 passes through a bore which is provided in the mounting element 50 and suitable bushings and bearing elements may be provided between the mounting element 50 and the pin and lever arm means so as to provide relatively free movement between the various elements.

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An inner end 54 of the hydraulic means is likewise mounted on a separate pin 56 carried within a portion of the mounting bracket 18 discussed above. The piston within the cylinder 46 moves towards the right of the FIGURES 1 and 2 views so as to move the lever arm means into an unlatched position relative to the hooking block Such movement of the piston is provided by the application of hydraulic fluid pressure, and a conduit means 58 is illustrated in FIG- URE 2 as a part of the hydraulic circuit which conducts fluid into and out of the cylinder Passageways are provided within the hydraulic means 42 so that hydraulic fluid may move into the cylinder 46 and force the piston to the right, when viewed as in FIGURES 1 and 2, so as to effect an unlatching of the locking dog assembly.

Latching movement, or movement toward the left of FIGURES l and 2, is provided by the pair of springs 44 which are stretched between the pins 52 and 56 so as to pull the lever arm means 14 to the left when operating pressure within the cylinder 46 is relieved. The pins 52 and 56 were discussed above with respect to their functions as mounting elements for the hydraulic means 42, and it can be seen that the pins 52 and 56 also function as mounting elements for the spring means Thus, the pins 52 and 56 provide a simple, but strong mounting arrangement for the entire actuating mechanism associated with the locking dog assembly of this invention.

FIGURE 1 also illustrates a means for mechanically releasing, or unlatching, individual locking dog assemblies in the event that there is a failure in the hydraulic system which normally releases the locking dogs. The releasing means 60 which is shown in FIGURE 1, includes a threaded element 62 which can be advanced toward the lever arm means 14 for moving the same out of engagement with the hooking block The threaded element 62 is carried within a threaded nut '64 and is normally completely out of engagement with the lever arm means for all normal swinging movements of the lever arm.

However, in the event of a hydraulic failure within the hatch cover hydraulic system, the threaded element 62 can be turned and advanced to unlatch the locking dog assembly.

The releasing means 60 may be installed within a tubular body 66 carried in a side wall portion of the panel Plugging or capping means 68 may be threaded to an outside surface of the tubular member 66 so as to seal the same from moisture or atmospheric conditions. Saluki , coat color Maltese vs. Black Lab , coat type Dalmatian vs. Border Collie and behavior herding vs.

This diversity is due primarily to the relatively short history of extreme selective breeding for specific traits of interest 1. The typically small number of individuals used for founding the individual breeds has resulted in substantial genetic bottlenecks and intense selection. A negative side-effect is an increased presence of deleterious or negative alleles i. Purebred dogs are excellent large animal models for studying genetic studies due to their well-documented pedigrees, thorough veterinary pathology, and a high level of linkage disequilibrium LD in the dog genome which varies across chromosomes and breeds 3 , 4.

These factors facilitate genomic association studies in dogs because large LD requires fewer individuals and markers to identify genomic loci associated with phenotypic traits or diseases 5. There are currently over catalogued heritable diseases in dogs of which over have been characterized at the molecular level Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, OMIA Sargan Our current understanding of traits in dogs is reliant upon the quality of the canine genome reference CGR.

The current CGR was created with sequences generated from a single female boxer named Tasha 6. Using a single individual for de novo assembly of a reference genome is a common practice, but disregards existing variation within and among individual Boxers—in the case of the CGR—and, more importantly, between breeds that number in the hundreds.

Given this information, it is likely that a considerable amount of existing genetic diversity within and among purebred domestic dogs is not represented in the CGR. We have investigated the extent of this limitation by analyzing the whole genome sequence data from three non-reference breeds—Border Collie, Bearded Collie, and Entlebucher Sennenhund—to uncover undescribed genetic content that exists outside of the CGR using a pseudo- de novo assembly of unmappable paired-end reads. S1 and represent contigs that are shared within each breed. Infographic representation of the de novo assembly across the three breeds.

Unmapped reads from each breed were assembled into primary assembly for each individual and pooled by breed to generate secondary assemblies. Boxer reads were mapped to the secondary assemblies to determine novel and shared genetic information across the assemblies.

Background

This refinement revealed that This refinement resulted in , unmapped contigs Sanger sequence reads from the original canFam1. Of the unmapped Boxer reads, The very small number of Boxer reads aligning to the breed-specific secondary assembly contigs indicates that the majority of the pseudo- de novo assembled contigs represent breed-specific variation and are not due to errors or gaps in the reference assembly.

BLASTn hits for contigs from 3 domestic dog breeds. For reference, GC content of CanFam3. Top hits for Border Collie contigs partitioned to Taxonomic profile of BLASTn hits from all the breeds are primarily assigned to species of the orders of carnivora, primate, and rodenta and suggests that secondary assemblies are free from bacterial sequence contamination.

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Six contigs representing protein coding sequences were chosen for PCR amplification in an additional 94 samples: 47 each from Border Collies and Boxers. PCR confirmation indicates that these sequences represent novel sequence missing from the CGR and are not sequencing artifacts. Polymerase chain reaction PCR examples of the contigs.

Full-length gels are presented in Supplementary Fig.


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Among the high-quality mappings within the Border Collie samples, , In Bearded Collie, 1, In Entlebucher Sennenhund 7, Among the , high-quality mappings with single genomic coordinates, , matched predictions with BLAT alignment and ranged throughout the genome and across functional gene regions in all three breeds. We found 11, gap contigs contigs mapping to the gap regions in CGR across the three breeds, filling 4. This includes 80 RefSeq, Ensembl, and canFam3.

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The 97 novel gap contigs were examined for potential functional elements and the resulted annotations are summarized in Supplementary Table ST2. We found 53 novel contigs that close 47 known genic gaps within 25 Ensembl, 21 RefSeq, and 32 canFam3. These would most likely be novel sequence insertions and by definition they could be considered structural variants because they are not present in the reference genome.

Contigs within and outside the known gaps can contain missing gene-rich sequences that may represent novel disease alleles or genes pertaining to intra- and interbreed specific traits and diseases 8. Of the 60, aligned contigs, 48, aligned to only dog proteins, contigs aligned to only human proteins, contigs aligned to only mouse proteins, and 11, aligned to multiple species Fig. Genes represented within species-specific contigs include 1, dog, human, and mouse genes Fig. Contigs with duplicate species hits are represented by 21, unique genes.

Contigs with BLASTx hits to dog proteins are candidates for novel alleles, while hits to human and mouse proteins are prospective novel alleles or splice variants of genes conserved across species and missing in the dog reference. Annotation of Border Collie de novo contigs. Number of contigs is indicated in red, contigs preferentially aligning to dog, human, or mouse protein Ensembl databases are indicated by colored boxes.

Note: Some contigs aligned with equal weight to two databases. Numbers in the overlapping regions indicate the number of BLASTx hits aligning to dog red , human yellow , and mouse blue. Novel contigs with translated sequence similarity closest to humans and mice are intriguing because these systems have been better studied for genomic variation associated with diseases.

This disease association may be recapitulated in other breeds, but is not currently represented in the CGR. In total, we found 1, contigs among the three breeds that had stronger protein sequence similarity to human and mouse than dog protein sequence. D e novo contigs in Border Collie included unique non-dog gene hits of which genes have been associated with human Mendelian diseases and 6 genes with both human and dog hereditary diseases with a disease-gene network database, disGeNET.

Bearded Collie de novo contigs included unique non-dog gene hits and 86 of those genes have been associated with human Mendelian diseases and 2 genes with both human Mendelian and dog hereditary diseases Fig. Entlebucher Sennenhund de novo contigs included unique non-dog gene hits with of those genes associating with human Mendelian diseases and no genes associating with dog hereditary diseases Fig. The six genes in Border Collies and two redundant genes in Bearded Collies are associated with 54 human and 4 animal model diseases Fig.

Known disease genes overlapping novel contigs. These genes are implicated in 54 human and 4 animal model disease phenotypes.


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Ab initio gene prediction in Bearded Collie and Entlebucher Sennenhund breeds did not yield any de novo contigs using the same criteria as performed with Border Collie. The aim of this study was to discover and map potential sequences missing from the reference assembly and uncover novel genes or possible splice variants utilizing unmapped sequence reads.

Moreover, recent studies in other species show that exploring unmapped reads often uncovers relevant biological information 10 , 11 , 12 , Consequently, we pooled reads from 41 dogs across three breeds and mined for novel genomic content using a pseudo- de novo assembly pipeline—an approach previously validated in humans and zebrafish—of non-mapping, high quality sequence reads which are usually discarded 10 , We found , contigs with an N50 of 1, in Border Collies, 7, contigs with an N50 of 3, in Bearded Collies, and 15, contigs with an N50 of 2, in Entlebucher Sennenhunds.

Novel contigs from all three breeds have a GC content similar to CanFam3.

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